Thursday, August 27, 2015

Sorrel… an old herb being found again

Michele K Koskinen

Everyear my Herb Garden becomes an experiment in taste. An avid and experimental cook I scavage through cookbooks, look online, and watch a few cooking shows on TV to find new recipes to try with new ingredients. This has made my world of herbs expand from the usual Italian Basil, Parsley, Italian Oregano, and Thyme to experiment with out of the box unknown everyday herbs. Today my container deck garden contains 4 types of Basil, 2 types of Parsley, 3 types of Oregano, 2 kinds of Thyme, 3 different Mints, 2 Sages, 2 Rosemary, and a few more in my regular garden. This year I have found three new herbs to try: Sorrel and Summer and Winter Savory.They have been planted in my small garden as well as containers and are doing well in both. If you have the ground space I would recommend planting it into the garden as it gets fairly large. My garden is intwined with flowers as well as perennial herbs. The annuals have their own little bed or are in containers.

Sorrel is a perennial herb in zone 3 to 7 that is ornamental as well as edible. The red veined sorrel with striking green and maroon pointed leaves gives planters a texture and color that puts a little interest into the design.It is also a flowering herb with a spike of a flowere

Spring is the best season for tender and less pronounced taste for sorrel.There are several types of Sorrel each with different characteristics, the French Sorrel is milder, the broad leaf Sorrel and the ed veined Sorrel similar in taste. I am growing the red veined Sorrel which is quite tart and bitter. I have, however used some of the smaller older leaves this summer in a fish sauce and it gave just the right amount of lemon bitterness to the oiley fish. Sorrel is high in Vitamin C and C but can be toxic if cooked in the wrong material. Stainless steel is the material of choice for cooking Sorrel as it is high in oxalic acid. As always with trying new foods/herbs do your basic research to make sure of the proper cooking preparations. 

The spring leaves can be used with tender lettuce in a salad or a sauce for fish. Discovering the uses for sorrel are a continuing adventure. I have found recipes in older cookbooks, if anyone collects them, and online. If you are interested in this herb/ vegetable there are many resources online. I have listed a few below for your beginning search. The French Sorrel will be my herb of choice next year as I have found several recipes for this milder cultivar.   Enjoy and salmon soup

Nextime--- Summer and Winter Savory another old herb gaining favor.

Article in Edible Manhatten

Thursday, August 20, 2015

Basil Downy Mildew

Michele K Koskinen

Has your basil crop had serious growing issues? Yellow leaves, brown specks, curling and dry. At first I thought it was lack of water, then too much water, then my short away time with hot hot weather. But no, I started trying to find an answer and just received my weekly email from a blogger I follow. Subject, Downy Mildew on Basil. My basil is grown in containers on my deck and I have not seen this before this year. Apparently it was spotted in 2009 and has been tracked since then.

Scientist are trying to get answers on how wide spread the problem is and possible solutions for the commercial as well as residential grower. The two links below will give you information with photos and a chance to enter information on your own Basil downy mildew problem for Cornell University to study. Within the links you will find additional links to get more information.

Cornell info on downy mildew with great photos


Sunday, May 17, 2015

Adventures in the Edible Landscape Garden

Hard Work in the Early Spring Yields Dividends

This season's garden is off to a fabulous start. Work began in March when the outdoor temperatures still required winter hats and gloves. Committee members met at the garden in Fairmount Park on a sunny Saturday afternoon. The beds were raked, winter debris was removed and the soil was turned. Progress was measured by the large number of  filled trash bags lining the walkway next to the garden. By mid-April, the various plant supports were installed and necessary repairs made to the permanent structures. We were ready to plant!

Early plantings with row covers
Master Gardener, Eldredge Ragsdale at work
Cool weather crops including a half dozen types of lettuce, arugula, radishes and Chinese mustard greens planted a month ago are now ready to harvest. The kale and kohlrabi are not far behind. Summer harvest vegetables went in a week ago including peppers, tomatoes, bush and pole beans plus cucumbers and onions. The garlic planted last October is standing tall and promises to yield a healthy crop. The 'Himrod' grapes that were ruthlessly cut back in March are growing rapidly. The first few tiny grapes were spotted on the vines today.

Ever eager to expand our growing capabilities, the Committee volunteers cleared the old compost area that had become a dumping spot for debris and created a new planting bed. Fruit cages have been installed and blueberries and gooseberries have been planted. The extra space next to the cages has become an onion patch where 'Walla Walla' and 'Red Zeppelin' onions are now planted.

We encourage all of our Master Gardeners to visit the garden throughout the growing season. In case you are not certain where to find us, the garden is located on the back side of the Horticultural Center greenhouses in Fairmount Park.

Friday, April 3, 2015

Philadelphia Master Gardeners: Yeah, We Know Mr. Yuk.

Jessica S. Herwick

Mr. Yuk, doing his job.
For one week every year, Master Gardeners throughout Pennsylvania are given the opportunity to participate in a state-wide initiative to expand local awareness of Mr. Yuk and Poison Prevention while simultaneously supporting the Penn State Pest Education Program mission by delivering a special presentation to first grade students in schools throughout the state.  The lesson, designed by PSU Pest Education, features Mr. Yuk and his accompanying Poison Prevention Education, but also incorporates topics like pest identification, differentiating between “good and bad” bugs, and how to read a label.    

Officially, National Poison Prevention Week is held annually across the United States during the third week in March, although awareness and education presentations occur throughout the entire month in many counties.  
Master Gardener Table Set with Presentation Materials

This year, our Philadelphia Master Gardeners helped to celebrate National Poison Prevention Week by introducing city first-graders to Mr. Yuk and teaching youth to identify and avoid contact with toxic substances as well as what to do in a poison emergency.  But the highlight is almost always the conversation about pest identification and bugs - at least until the stickers are handed out at the end.

Master Gardeners enjoy the bug talk just as much.  Presenter Kia Linder pointed out that it’s just as important to talk about the good bugs when working with the youngsters, after all, we Master Gardeners are working hard to save pollinators, and you can’t swat at everything that flies.  Kia said “The best part for me, as a Master Gardener, was explaining to the children that a lot of insects play a major part in the growth of fruits and vegetables we eat to sustain life.”

Philadelphia Master Gardeners Tracy Katz, Kia Linder, Mary Anne Pedrick and Jessica S. Herwick, along with Jim Millisky (an enrolled MG Trainee getting ahead on those volunteer service hours) donated their talents and time to reach over 450 students in 7 schools and several after-school programs throughout the district.  Some joined the Penn State Pest Educators who came into town for program delivery, while coordinator Anna Herman and Master Gardener Michele Doberman helped things run smoothly behind the scenes.  All volunteers managed to distribute materials, knowledge and those cool Mr. Yuk stickers to help to make homes a safer place.
Jim Milliski discussing chemicals with 1st grade students at John B. Kelly School
Students from participating schools including Clara Barton Elementary, Blair Christian Academy, St. Gabriel’s Elementary, John B. Kelly Elementary, J. H. Brown, the Northeast Family YMCA, and Women’s Christian Alliance gathered around presenters on carpets in classrooms across Philly.  These pint-sized participants offered their own advice and suggestions.  For instance, a first grader from J.H. Brown recommended singing to cockroaches when you see them, instead of touching them.  When asked what they’d do if they found their little brother or sister playing with cleaning supplies under the sink, one energetic student chimed in “If your baby brother is playing with the stuff under there, close the doors, lock him in there and then go get your mother.” 

John B. Kelly School student shares his thoughts on chemical pesticides. We agree!
This can be complicated, confusing stuff for elementary schoolers who are naturally independent, inquisitive and prone to immediately rely on senses like taste, touch and smell to identify unknown substances.  This creates all sorts of opportunities for children to ingest a substance that will make them sick. It's a complicated world
out there, full of all sorts of products that intrigue the senses and 8 year old curiosities.  And this is what makes Mr. Yuk such an important safety figure for elementary school-agers. 

For example, the following photo contains 2 bottles with the labels pulled off.  One bottle is a toxic liquid cleaner.  One bottle is a sports drink.  Can you tell which is which?  A lot of the students and teachers had a difficult time telling the difference as well.  
Scroll to the very bottom to see which bottle is toxic. Look for Mr.Yuk.
According to Herwick, who spearheaded the registration and scheduling for the 2015 program, most every school has already pre-registered to bring the Philly Master Gardeners back again in March 2016.  That’s a lot of homework assignments away from the next Poison Prevention Week, but the MG presenters are looking forward to their return as they continue pre-registrations and refine their presentations in preparation for next year.  Philadelphia Master Gardeners intend to expand their reach in 2016 by at least doubling the number of registered Public, Charter and Private schools in the Philadelphia Area.

Educators and school employees interested in registering their first grade classrooms for this free program can contact Anna Herman or Jessica Herwick to get on the list for the 2015-16 school year.  Pre-registration is currently open! 

Looking for More Information?

Interested Philadelphia Master Gardeners can join the working group by signing up on the Volunteer Management System under Poison Prevention in Projects.

More About The History Mr. Yuk and Poison Prevention on This Blog

Pittsburg Poison Center (The Creators of Mr. Yuk)

Penn State Pest Education and Poison Prevention Programming Links

Teachers interested in pre-registration for 2016 Poison Prevention Week Presentations can email Anna or Jessica for more information.
Anna Herman, Master Gardener Coordinator
Jessica Herwick

Mr. Yuk Poison Prevention NATIONAL POSTER CONTEST!
Currently, submissions of children's artwork and poster designs are being accepted for the National Poison Prevention Poster Contest.  The winners artwork will be printed onto posters and distributed nationally in 2016. Parents, Teachers, Caregivers can submit children's work.  See guidelines:

ANSWER: Toxic Cleaner has Mr. Yuk Sticker.
Did you guess right?

Thursday, March 26, 2015

Winter Houseplant Woes

~ Jessica S. Herwick
When the weather makes outdoor gardening impossible, like many of you out there, I keep a small selection of edibles and ornamentals in the bay window of my Manayunk apartment, where I also cluster my kitchen herbs and houseplants to survive the winter. Indoor gardening requires a slightly different point of view.  You don’t have to worry about pests like squashbugs, finding their way into your zucchini patch.  But, there are a few stealthy intruders out there that can survive happily in both your outside and indoor garden projects, like mites, aphids and whiteflies – and if those whiteflies find their way into your houseplants, you don’t have the benefit of natural predators like birds swooping in to snack on the insects.  The management is all up to you. 

It happens to the best of us.  No matter how diligently you prepare your indoor garden, even the best of practices cannot prevent Mother Nature from creeping in and having her way one hundred percent of the time.  Especially inside.  I follow most of the basic preventative practices when growing indoors. Water less.  The plants aren’t as thirsty and the dry soil helps prevent a number of pests, molds and fungi from setting in. Feed less, and more naturally.  Avoid tap water.  Mist plants.  Keep an eye out for invaders.  Put out traps before you see a pest.  Most importantly, keep careful watch over your favorites!  Somehow, these insects and arachnids know which plants you hold most dear.  This year, they chose my 28-month-long project, the avocados I’ve been growing from discarded seed.  I have raised several and they function happily as houseplants, filtering the stuffy apartment air and keeping me occupied during snowstorms.
I thought my precautionary tasks had proven successful and was basking in my pest-free glory… until I saw the holes, the small ½” holes peeking through the soil surface of my largest and oldest of the avocado collection.  The holes were too perfect to have appeared as a result of watering, and I hadn’t been sticking my fingers in the soil, although that’s how it looked.  The plant stood strong, no visible signs of stress or damage.  I scratched my head, snapped a photo for future research, and went on about my task – being sure to pinch off the soil surface holes, hoping to force the pest to reemerge by closing off the tunnels. I should've known better, done more.  But I didn't, and I paid the price.
Two days later I had to pack up and leave town for a week.  The pest most definitely returned in my absence.  Arriving back home 6 days later, the holes were back and the avocado had been stripped.  EVERY SINGLE LEAF had either fallen or been clipped off.  This meant war.  I removed the plant in its entirety from the container to reveal dozens of well-fed beetle grubs enjoying the tender roots of what was a thriving 2 year old avocado sapling just a week ago.

Suddenly everything made sense! 

Remembering the Japanese Beetle, who made its way into my apartment back in August, I knew I'd been defeated.  I didn’t kill it because I’m a softie, and try not to kill every bug that intrudes in my home.  I didn’t chase it outside again, because I didn’t want to send a Japanese Beetle into my back yard garden, or my lawn to breed.  Instead, I chose to endure her buzzing and kept her captive in my entryway.  Little did I know that this perspicacious little beetle was cozying up under my avocado tree to lay her eggs, but the proof was in the larva.  Oh, so many larva!  I'm sorry, Mama Beetle.  I plucked them out and fed them to the birds. 

After a good rinsing, a new pot and some freshly purchased premixed potting medium, the avocado is now replanted and starting to show new signs of life.  I haven’t given up, especially not so close to Spring!  But it’s going to be an uphill battle. 
Although you may not be able to prevent a sneaky
beetle from laying her eggs in your plantlings, there are a few tricks you can make at home and keep on hand to manage pests that creep into your houseplants from the garden, back porch or that hole in the window screen you’ve been meaning to fix.  Some will even work outside in the garden. I keep all of the following materials and ingredients handy in my plant pantry, along with a few clean spray bottles, for plant emergencies.  They happen more often than you'd think!

Management Method

Who/What it Manages

How to DIY

Horticultural (Insecticidal) Soap

Fungus Gnats, Whiteflies, Mealybugs, Aphids, Spider Mites

(soft bodied insects)

Using original Dawn brand or Liquid Joy liquid soap only (nothing with additional power or chemicals):

Combine 1 cup of vegetable oil with 1tbs liquid soap.  Mix well.

Dilute the mixture by combining 2tsps of the oil/soap solution per 1 cup warm (filtered) water and put into a spray bottle.  Mix only what you’ll use in that day.  Do not store. Spray leaves above and below.  Shade for 24 hours after treatment to prevent burn. 

! Commercial soap sprays are effective and if you read the label, you can find non-chemical based sprays that are premixed and have a longer shelf life.

Yellow “Sticky Traps”

Whitefly, aphids, thrips, leafhoppers, moths, fruit flies, fungus gnats

Use yellow poster board or color an index card with yellow marker.  Cut into 1”x3” pieces.  Fold in half around a toothpick.  Secure (I use glue stick) Paint with honey or petroleum jelly on both sides of flag.  Push toothpick into soil.  Insects will stick and die.  Replace when there’s more full space than empty space on card. 

Bury Garlic Bulbs

Burying a piece of Mother Nature’s natural insect repellent!  Burying garlic, is a Farmer’s Almanac-style trick to eradicate pests from houseplants.  Garlic is a natural repellent to large numbers of soil & leaf loving pests.  Too many to list.  

Using one clove of garlic per pot, bury the clove into the soil about halfway.  If garlic begins to sprout, pull and transplant in garden then replace or allow to grow, trimming back the green shoots.  Replace monthly for best effects.  You can use the garlic clove with or without the skin.

Apple Cider Vinegar Trap

Fruit flies, fungus gnats

In a small container (I use a half-pint jar) fill with apple cider vinegar, cover tightly with plastic wrap and secure (I screw the jar rim over the plastic wrap but you can use rubber bands or tape)  Poke small holes in top of plastic wrap and place near the most insect activity.  Insects get in but can’t get out.  Replace every 2 weeks, every 1 week in humid summer weather.

Touch with Rubbing Alcohol

(some say rubbing with a banana peel works too, but I’ve never tried it!)

Spider Mites, aphids

Dip a cotton ball or swab into a small dish of rubbing alcohol and lightly rub directly along plant stem and undersides of leaves where you see mite activity.

Larger Scale Wash: Dip cloth into rubbing alcohol and lightly rub the entire plant.  You can dilute with water for very delicate plants.

DO NOT NEED MUCH!  Lightly coat surface.  Do not pour or create dripping.  Shade for 24 hours after treatment.

Submerge, Rinse & Repot

(The old college try)

A last ditch effort to rescue a plant from any pest, roots to tip of stem.

If a plant is completely infested, pulling the plant from the pot and shaking off all excess soil and submerging the entire plant in room temperature water for up to 15 minutes will send many of the pests looking for higher ground and they will “float” away.  Don’t be afraid to gently wipe the stems and corners to “bathe” the plant. Follow with a good rinsing and wiping of leaves then repot in clean potting mix. Follow up with a preventative treatment to keep potential eggs or stragglers from creating a new brood.

Removal and Disposal

(The last resort)

Any Pest

Sometimes the insects win, and in order to save the rest of your collection, a badly infected houseplant with severe damage that has not responded to your methods for management should be discarded (not in your compost bin where they can multiply).


Philadelphia Master Gardeners Horticultural Hotline ONLINE information: 
The Horticulture Hotline (HortLine) of the Penn State Extension Philadelphia Master Gardeners is a free service for residents of Philadelphia. Master Gardeners are ready to answer questions pertaining to: selecting vegetables, ornamental plants, pesticides, soil, plant and pest identification, pruning, compost, mulch, insect control, plant diseases, canning garden produce, food safety, and more!  If we cannot answer the question ourselves we will refer it to the Penn State University Hotline.   To contact the Philadelphia HortLine Online:         
     E-mail with "Hortline" in the subject line
     Please give your question, name and contact phone number. Include photos!

 Penn State Extension Juniata County Publication about Houseplant Pest Management

Houseplant Growing Tips and Pest Management Home Remedies

Organic Home Remedies for Pests from Organic Gardening Online

Good Guide for Controlling Aphids on Houseplants

Quick and Easy Resources for Growing Avocado Basics